During the construction of highway, embankments, bridge approaches, dykes, dams, tanks, buildings, and other structures on soft compressible soil, considerable settlement may occur. This is due to the consolidation of soil under the superimposed load. The consolidation of soil can be done in three various ways, viz surcharging (or preloading), vertical drains (or band/wick drains) and staged construction.
The consolidation is carried out at the
outset of project and in the shortest possible time during the construction
period. Construction of a structure on top of soft soil foundation will not
commence until there is an assurance that there will not be any damage due to
Thus, monitoring the progress of
consolidation and stability of the foundation is crucial and requires a good
instrumentation planning. Instrumentation is used to monitor the progress of
consolidation beneath a single-stage embankment, a surcharged embankment or
staged construction so that construction schedules can be determined.
When vertical drains are installed,
instrumentation is normally used to evaluate whether it is effective in
accelerating consolidation. Instrumentation may also be installed to provide a
warning of any instability, thereby allowing remedial measures to be
implemented before critical situations arise.
level, water pressure
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